Labour Analgesia and Its Outcome in Rural Population

  • Rajani Rawat
  • Ruchika Garg AP, Dept of Gyne SN MC AGRA
  • Shikha Seth
  • Arun Nagrath
  • Ramakant Rawat
Keywords: Labour Analgesia, Pain Relief, Programmed Labour Protocol


Introduction: The  purpose of the study was to assess the effect of programmed labour protocol on labour analgesia, duration of labour , maternal and foetal outcome and mode of delivery.Methods: A prospective randomized study was done in UP Rural institute of Medical Science and  Research, Saifai, Uttar Pradesh, India. One hundred and twenty  primigravidae  at  37 to 42 week gestation with vertex presentation  and in the active phase of labour without any foetal or maternal complication were randomly  allocated  in  two groups. 60 women received programmed labour protocol while other 60 women were managed expectantly with traditional method. Labour duration, pain relief, mode of delivery , maternal and  foetal outcome noted in both groups  were analyzed.Results: Duration of all stages of labour were reduced(p<0.001). Average blood loss was comparatively less in the study group. There was no foetal or maternal complications. 55% women in the study group had excellent  pain relief. There was no impact on caesarean section  rate.Conclusions: Programmed labour protocol decreases the labour duration and provide  significant pain relief without any maternal and/or foetal complications. 


1. Agrawal D, Makhija B, Arora M, Haritwal A, Gurha P. The Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Labour, Mode of Delivery and Neonatal Outcome in Nullipara of India, 2011-2014. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR. 2014;8(10):OC03-OC06. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9974.4930.
2. Agrawal D, Makhija B, Fotedar S. Impact of Epidural Analgesia on labour: A Review. Annals of Woman and Child Health. 2015;1:R1-9
3. Daftary SN, Desai SV, Nanavati MS . Programmed labour- An indigenously developed protocol of labour management.Int J Gynecol Obstet .2003;6:47-49.
4. Chauhan R, Gupta R. A clinical study of programmed labour and its outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol $ Family Welfare .2003;5:8-9
5. Prasertsawat PO, Herabutya Y,Chaturachinda R. Obstetric analgesia. Current Therapeutic research. 1986;40:1022-8.
6. Suvonnakote T, Thitadilok W, Atisook R. Pain relief during labour. J Med Assoc Thailand .1986;69:575-80.
7. Veronica Irene, Vaneet Kaur. Programmed labor for optimizing labor and delivery. JK Science .2008;10:62-4.
8. Jyoti M, Singhal P, Choudhary D. Programmed labour. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2006;56:53-55.
9. Husslein P, Kubista E, Egarter C. Obstetrical analgesia with tramadol, results of a prospective randomized comparative study with pethidine. Zeitschrift Gebrtshilf umb perinatolfgie . 1987;191:234-7.
10. Li E, Weng L. Influence of dihydroetorphine hydrochloride and tramadol on labour pain and umbilical blood gas. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi .1995;30:345-8.
11. Reddy W, Carey JC. Effect of umbilical vein oxytocin on puerperal blood loss and length of the third stage of labor. Am J Obstet Gynaecol .1989;160:260-8
12. Bajaj P, Meena R, Prasad R. Intravenous tramadol for labour analgesia.Indian Pract. 1997;50: 1051-4.
Original Article