A Study of Frequency and Pattern of Adverse Transfusion Reactions at a Blood Bank in a Tertiary Care Hospital: Towards Hemovigilance
AbstractBackground: Adequate and safe transfusion facility of blood and its components is necessary as blood transfusions are a part of life saving measures in medical and surgical emergencies. However, transfusion practice could result in non-fatal to fatal adverse transfusion reactions (ATR). Therefore, it is important to identify various adverse reactions so that steps can be taken to minimize such reactions and ensure safer transfusion being carried out. Methods: All ATRs reported to the blood bank from January 2013 to December 2016 were reviewed and analysed. The frequency of ATRs and its association with various component types were assessed. Result: During the study period, a total of 199106 units of blood were issued from the blood bank out of which there was an incidence of 77 (0.12%) transfusion reactions. Chills/rigors was the most common symptom (27.3%) of the symptomatic cases followed by pruritis (23.4%) Majority of the transfusion reaction were non haemolytic, 76 (98.7%) cases. One case was of haemolytic transfusion reaction. Among the non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, febrile non haemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) constituted 28 (36.4%) and allergic reactions constituted 41(53.2%). Other transfusion reactions including hypotensive transfusion reaction (HTR), 1 (1.3%) case and transfusion associated dyspnoea (TAD), 6 (7.8%) cases were also seen. The frequency of ATRs was highest with packed red cells (PC) being 75.3% and least with platelet concentrate (PLTC) being 11.7%. Conclusion: The frequency of ATRs in our blood bank was found to be on a lower scale when compared to that of most of the similar studies. Allergic reactions and FNHTR were the most common ATRs seen, introduction of leukoreduction filters would help reduce FNHTRs.
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