Annals of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2022-01-04T18:47:12+00:00 Dr. Prashant Goyal Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Annals of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (APALM)</strong> is an international, Double-blind peer-reviewed, indexed, open access, online and print journal&nbsp;for pathologists, microbiologist, biochemist and clinical laboratory scientists, and is published by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Pacific group of e-Journals</strong>' (<strong>PaGe</strong>)</a>, </strong>an&nbsp;<em>ISO 9001:2008</em> Certified&nbsp;academic publishing house.</p> <p>Set up in 2014, APALM is a specialized journal, which publishes original, peer-reviewed articles&nbsp;in the field of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine which, <em>inter alia</em>, includes Histopathology, Cytopathology, Hematology, Clinical Pathology, Forensic Pathology, Blood Banking, Clinical Bio-Chemistry, Medical Microbiology (Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Parasitology), etc.</p> <p><strong>DOI: 10.21276/APALM (<a title="Verify APALM DOI " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>)<br></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bacteriological Profiles of Semen Culture in Male Patients Having Primary Infertility, Attending Mombasa Assisted Reproduction Centre 2022-01-04T18:47:11+00:00 Uday Dineshchandra Thanki Stanley King'e Waithaka Mbaruk Abdalla Suleiman Mahesh Narbheram Chudasama <p>Background: Infertility is of global health concern affecting one out of six couples worldwide, and Africa has reported the highest rates. Bacterial semen infections are considered to be one of the significant causes of infertility. Effective antimicrobial therapy is therefore essential in treatment of bacteriospermia. This study aimed to identify the bacterial pathogens present in semen and involved performing the antimicrobial susceptibility testing to improve the clinical management by identifying the antimicrobials that can be the best treatment option.<br>Methods: Ninety semen specimens were collected from male patients having primary infertility who attended the clinic. Semen was cultured on Nutrient agar, Blood agar, MacConkey agar and Chocolate blood agar using standard bacteriological techniques. Bacterial isolates identification was done by studying the colony characteristics, performing gram staining reactions and biochemical testing. Modified Kirby-Bauer method was used in performing the antimicrobial susceptibility testing.<br>Result: 51 (56.67%) patients presented with bacteriospermia. Staphylococcus aureus (29.41%) was the most common bacteria isolated, followed by Escherichia coli (23.53%), Coagulase negative staphylococcus species (17.65%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.76%), Proteus. mirabilis (7.84%), Pseudomonas. aeruginosa (5.88%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3.92%). Most of the bacteria isolated were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ofloxacin and moderately sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin and cefuroxime.<br>Conclusion: Bacteriospermia prevalence rate was 56.67% and was commonly observed in the age group of 30 - 39 years. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the predominant causative agent of semen infection. The most effective antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ofloxacin and the antimicrobial with least activity was co-trimoxazole.</p> 2022-01-04T18:41:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Papillary Lesions of Breast - Limitations of H&E and Pivotal Role of IHC: Single Cancer Centre Study 2022-01-04T18:47:11+00:00 Anjali Sharma Syeda Firdos Jamil Chaitali Singh Arpita Mathur Amandeep Talwar Simran Gilhotra <p>Background–Papillary breast lesions constitute wide spectrum of heterogeneous pathological group. Diagnosis becomes challenging in case of overlapping histomorphological features.<br> Material &amp; methods–Retrospectively 69 papillary lesion were taken into consideration from January 2017 to March 2021.<br>Results – Routine H&amp;E &amp; CK5/6, P63 is used for further differentiation. Cases were divided into three main divisions 1) benign –intraductal papilloma 2) atypical – intraductal papilloma with ADH/ DCIS 3) malignant - Intra ductal papillary carcinoma, encapsulated papillary carcinoma, solid papillary carcinoma &amp; invasive papillary carcinoma. Papilloma comprised of 28 patients between 25-60 years of age &amp; varies in size from 0.6 to 2.8 cm. Papilloma with ADH/DCIS accounted for 8 patients between 34-65 years age group with size of lesion between 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Intraductal papillary carcinoma comprised of 12 patients with size range 1.6 to 4.0 cm in age group of 42 to 65 years. Encapsulated papillary carcinoma comprised of 4 patients with age between 60 to 73 years and lesion size 0.8 to 14 cm. Solid Papillary carcinoma comprised of 10 patients between 39-81 years of age &amp; lesion varies in size from 1.0 to 8.5 cm. Invasive papillary carcinoma comprised of 7 patients between age of 65 to 80 year and size varies between 2.0 to 6.5 cm. <br>Conclusion – Diagnosis of papillary carcinoma is challenging and its classification includes different entities that have specific diagnostic criteria. Due to heterozygosity in morphology of benign, atypical and malignant subtypes, morphological features should be supplemented by IHC for accurate diagnosis.</p> 2022-01-04T18:43:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review of Recent Advances in Cytopathology for Diagnosis of Hepato-Biliary Lesions 2022-01-04T18:47:11+00:00 Smita Chandra <p>Cytology has emerged as an important diagnostic modality for hepato-biliary lesions because of its minimally invasive, rapid turnaround time and cost-effective nature. This is especially important in diagnosis of neoplastic pathology of liver, gall bladder or bile duct where biopsy is difficult and delayed diagnosis may lead to complications or even mortality.&nbsp; The advent of newer molecular diagnostic modalities like polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunochemistry or more recently circulating tumour cells and next generation sequencing (NGS) have not only led to precise diagnosis but are also helpful in targeted therapy and prognostication of tumour. Cytology which is a minimally invasive technique can be judiciously used for advanced molecular analysis for diagnosis and management of hepato-biliary lesions. Awareness regarding the use of cytological samples for molecular analysis in hepato- biliary lesions is essential so that mutational changes may be easily determined without undergoing any invasive technique in these deep-seated lesions. It is also necessary that guidelines on molecular cytology should be chalked out so that uniform reporting is followed with maintenance of high-quality standards.</p> 2022-01-04T18:45:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Concepts of Pathology from Ancient India-A Review of Sanskrit Literature 2022-01-04T18:47:12+00:00 Mega Lahori <p>Contribution by ancient physicians from the Indian subcontinent towards the field of pathology has been largely unknown globally. This paper aims at providing a glimpse of the knowledge possessed by the Sanskrit scholars of ancient times (derived from Sanskrit texts written originally between 1500 B.C. and 1500 A.D) regarding the basis of disease and correlating their ideas with our present understanding of the concepts in Pathology.&nbsp; <em>Ayurveda</em> (traditional Indian medicine) was developed in India during the Vedic age (approximately 1500-500 BC). The early ayurvedic practitioners gave due importance to etiopathogenesis of diseases as a separate field called <em>Nidana-shastra</em>. (<em>Nidāna </em>means etiology or cause). <em>Charaka </em>emphasized that illness is caused by imbalance of the three principles (<em>doshas</em>) - <em>vata, pitta </em>and<em> kapha</em>, and that genetic defects are transmitted by either the sperm or the ovum. <em>Sushruta</em> depicted various modes of communicable disease transmission - physical contact, exhaled air, close contact, fomites etc, <em>Madhava </em>classified diseases based on pathogenesis (primary or secondary), etiology (endogenous or exogenous) and prognosis (curable, incurable, mild and acute).<em> Chakrapani</em> propounded that epidemics in a community occur due to deterioration of factors that are common to all who inhabit that community- namely air, water, soil, food, etc. <em>Vagabhatta</em> emphasized the importance of personal hygiene and proper nutrition for good health and elaborated the role of contaminated river water in several diseases. <em>Agada tantra </em>is the science of poisons and their antidotes which was founded by <em>Kashyapa</em>.</p> 2022-01-04T18:46:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ectopic Pancreatic Islets in Splenopancreatic Ligament: A Case Report 2022-01-04T18:47:11+00:00 Rajarshi Aich Arpita Sutradhar Enam Murshed Khan Sudipta Kumar Maitra Shaikat Gupta <p>Heterotopic or ectopic pancreas is pancreatic tissue present at an abnormal location which is not connected to the main pancreas. They are predominantly located in the gastrointestinal tract, with stomach being the most common site. Mostly asymptomatic, they are usually detected incidentally during surgeries for other conditions. Preoperative diagnosis is very difficult and the definitive diagnosis is histopathological examination of the suspected lesion. Surgical resection is curative and it should be done in asymptomatic cases for diagnostic confirmation and prevention of complications. Here, we present a case of ectopic pancreas in a 59-year-old female in the splenopancreatic ligament which was incidentally identified during histopathological examination of specimen excised for serous cystadenoma of pancreas.</p> 2022-01-04T18:39:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##