Annals of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm <p><strong>Annals of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (APALM)</strong> is an international, Double-blind peer-reviewed, indexed, open access, online and print journal&nbsp;for pathologists, microbiologist, biochemist and clinical laboratory scientists,&nbsp;with <strong>Index Copernicus (IC) Value (ICV 2016): 74.20, </strong>and <strong>DOI: 10.21276/APALM&nbsp;</strong>being&nbsp;published by&nbsp;<a title="PaGe" href="/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">'</a><strong><a title="PaGe" target="_blank"><strong>Pacific group of e-Journals</strong>' (<strong>PaGe</strong>)</a>, </strong>an&nbsp;<em>ISO 9001:2008</em> Certified&nbsp;academic publishing house.</p> <p>APALM is a specialized journal, which publishes original, peer-reviewed articles&nbsp;in the field of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine which, <em>inter alia</em>, includes Histopathology, Cytopathology, Hematology, Clinical Pathology, Forensic Pathology, Blood Banking, Clinical Bio-Chemistry, Medical Microbiology (Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Parasitology), etc.</p> <p>APALM was set up in 2014 and has been successfully<strong>&nbsp;indexed</strong>&nbsp;with following renowned Indexing and Abstracting<strong>&nbsp;</strong>databases:</p> <div dir="ltr" style="text-align: left;"> <table class="MsoTableGrid" style="border-collapse: collapse; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-padding-alt: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184;" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="1"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gPB4qr2IT2g/VkMfJXkH1jI/AAAAAAAAAh8/cCxEboMPoB8/s1600/Index%2BCopernicus.png"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-gPB4qr2IT2g/VkMfJXkH1jI/AAAAAAAAAh8/cCxEboMPoB8/s200/Index%2BCopernicus.png" alt="" width="200" height="45" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Index Corpenicus</span></div> </td> <td style="border-left: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-IKecVxW3RAo/VkMfHsShWtI/AAAAAAAAAh0/PsmLIPWQxRI/s1600/Advance%2BScientific%2BIndex.png"><img src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-IKecVxW3RAo/VkMfHsShWtI/AAAAAAAAAh0/PsmLIPWQxRI/s200/Advance%2BScientific%2BIndex.png" alt="" width="200" height="43" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Advanced Science Index</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-VOf9eCiMx3I/VkMfNjvFCsI/AAAAAAAAAho/AdQ9l70YxCc/s1600/researchgate.png"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-VOf9eCiMx3I/VkMfNjvFCsI/AAAAAAAAAho/AdQ9l70YxCc/s200/researchgate.png" alt="" width="200" height="56" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">ResearchGate</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pOvXY0aq0HE/VkMfMagtS3I/AAAAAAAAAhU/Fh6QDUzhvvs/s1600/google%2Bscholar.png"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pOvXY0aq0HE/VkMfMagtS3I/AAAAAAAAAhU/Fh6QDUzhvvs/s200/google%2Bscholar.png" alt="" width="200" height="76" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Google Scholar</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-emQEncf_yxQ/VkMfKCYIHPI/AAAAAAAAAgM/KT7AwjkPNy0/s1600/Innospace.jpg"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-emQEncf_yxQ/VkMfKCYIHPI/AAAAAAAAAgM/KT7AwjkPNy0/s1600/Innospace.jpg" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">InnoSpace - SJIF Scientific Journal Impact Factor</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SjzzLcngG1Q/VkMfH0vDWPI/AAAAAAAAAfM/hp8CDsH9wo8/s1600/DRJI.png"><img src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-SjzzLcngG1Q/VkMfH0vDWPI/AAAAAAAAAfM/hp8CDsH9wo8/s1600/DRJI.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-TThU_83HHhE/VkMfJpTSCJI/AAAAAAAAAgo/p25-fBpwlLQ/s1600/Indian%2BCitation%2BIndex.jpg"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-TThU_83HHhE/VkMfJpTSCJI/AAAAAAAAAgo/p25-fBpwlLQ/s1600/Indian%2BCitation%2BIndex.jpg" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Indian Citation Index</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YYcvrLzKf6o/VkMfL9aaqlI/AAAAAAAAAh4/ugFIRJDdHOQ/s1600/cite%2Bfactor.png"><img src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-YYcvrLzKf6o/VkMfL9aaqlI/AAAAAAAAAh4/ugFIRJDdHOQ/s200/cite%2Bfactor.png" alt="" width="200" height="58" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Cite Factor</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-MXDERl1L_-0/VkMfMysPFmI/AAAAAAAAAhk/isPDxMRmTL0/s1600/open%2Bacademic%2Bjournal%2Bindex.jpg"><img src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-MXDERl1L_-0/VkMfMysPFmI/AAAAAAAAAhk/isPDxMRmTL0/s200/open%2Bacademic%2Bjournal%2Bindex.jpg" alt="" width="200" height="58" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Open Academic Journals Index (OAJI)</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-nNJnD7awrYw/VkMfN7wFwsI/AAAAAAAAAhs/0f2IThKwUJQ/s1600/scholarsteer.png"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-nNJnD7awrYw/VkMfN7wFwsI/AAAAAAAAAhs/0f2IThKwUJQ/s1600/scholarsteer.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Scholarsteer</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GrEjqEHQumk/VkMfIQpEhmI/AAAAAAAAAfk/kVYVKCx89o8/s1600/Directory%2Bof%2BIndexing%2Band%2BImoact%2BFactor.jpg"><img src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GrEjqEHQumk/VkMfIQpEhmI/AAAAAAAAAfk/kVYVKCx89o8/s1600/Directory%2Bof%2BIndexing%2Band%2BImoact%2BFactor.jpg" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Directory of Indexing and Impact Factor (DIIF)</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-c5N9YSfkT2o/VkMfNZkvarI/AAAAAAAAAhw/oS84tX2QI0A/s1600/research%2Bbible.png"><img src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-c5N9YSfkT2o/VkMfNZkvarI/AAAAAAAAAhw/oS84tX2QI0A/s1600/research%2Bbible.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Research Bible</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JkaP7TZlyMY/VkMfLixUHWI/AAAAAAAAAhE/DM72Gg1NZ18/s1600/SherpaRomeo.jpg"><img src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-JkaP7TZlyMY/VkMfLixUHWI/AAAAAAAAAhE/DM72Gg1NZ18/s1600/SherpaRomeo.jpg" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Sherpa Romeo</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4gNghKiu_Xc/VkMfLQ97WZI/AAAAAAAAAg0/KWBMZdnCIHc/s1600/SIS-Logo.png"><img src="https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-4gNghKiu_Xc/VkMfLQ97WZI/AAAAAAAAAg0/KWBMZdnCIHc/s1600/SIS-Logo.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Scientific indexing services (SIS)</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-4OiNHXG_o7I/VkMfHpZuGOI/AAAAAAAAAfU/CBlJUFRiFmI/s1600/Cosmos.png"><img src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-4OiNHXG_o7I/VkMfHpZuGOI/AAAAAAAAAfU/CBlJUFRiFmI/s1600/Cosmos.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Cosmos Foundation</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-z8_uJreNcus/VkMfKl2eB8I/AAAAAAAAAgc/Nerowd-oOxg/s1600/JIF.PNG"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-z8_uJreNcus/VkMfKl2eB8I/AAAAAAAAAgc/Nerowd-oOxg/s1600/JIF.PNG" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Journals Impact Factor (JIFACTOR)</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/--zxwQexI6fM/VkMfI65kpPI/AAAAAAAAAf4/jV-qddbtpOM/s1600/IIFR.png"><img src="https://4.bp.blogspot.com/--zxwQexI6fM/VkMfI65kpPI/AAAAAAAAAf4/jV-qddbtpOM/s200/IIFR.png" alt="" width="200" height="60" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">International Institute For Research</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-iIHsYetiu7c/VkMfJ6ISbRI/AAAAAAAAAgE/C7h_MW_XdFM/s1600/Indian%2BScience.PNG"><img src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-iIHsYetiu7c/VkMfJ6ISbRI/AAAAAAAAAgE/C7h_MW_XdFM/s1600/Indian%2BScience.PNG" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Indian Science</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TGLF2l70WZQ/VkMfIsQYEYI/AAAAAAAAAgU/myYso6Q61Dg/s1600/Global%2BImpact%2BFactor.png"><img src="https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-TGLF2l70WZQ/VkMfIsQYEYI/AAAAAAAAAgU/myYso6Q61Dg/s1600/Global%2BImpact%2BFactor.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; margin-left: 18.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 12px;">Global Impact Factor</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="separator" style="clear: both; text-align: center;"><a style="margin-left: 1em; margin-right: 1em;" href="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-VAQYsxP3Vg0/VkMfKROZQ4I/AAAAAAAAAg8/zmx0IVJOEEA/s1600/International%2Bimpact%2Bfactor%2BJournals.png"><img src="https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-VAQYsxP3Vg0/VkMfKROZQ4I/AAAAAAAAAg8/zmx0IVJOEEA/s1600/International%2Bimpact%2Bfactor%2BJournals.png" alt="" border="0"></a></div> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; margin-left: 18.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">International Impact Factor Services (IIFS)</span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="border-top: none; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; margin-left: 18.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Index Scientific Journals (ISJ)</span></div> </td> <td style="border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-left: none; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;"> <div class="MsoNormal" style="background: #FBFBF3; line-height: 15.0pt; margin-left: 18.0pt; mso-margin-bottom-alt: auto; mso-margin-top-alt: auto; text-align: center;" align="center"><span style="color: #111111; font-family: 'arial' , sans-serif; font-size: 9.0pt;">Journal Index</span></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;The Effect of Open Access at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html).</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> editor.apalm@gmail.com (Dr. Prashant Goyal) contactus@pacificejournals.com (Amit Saggar) Fri, 26 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Preoperative Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study Comparing the accuracy of Ultrasound (TI-RADS) Versus the FNAC Bethesda System in Relation to the Final Postoperative Histo-pathological Diagnosis https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2110 <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: We are trying to improve and detect the accuracy of the diagnostic tools of thyroid nodules by comparing the findings of thyroid ultrasound (US) using the thyroid image reporting and data system&nbsp;(TI-RADS) with the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) that were reported according to the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC), through matching the results of both maneuvers with the final postoperative (PO) pathology reports.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study included 100 patients suffering from thyroid swelling. Patients underwent ultrasound assessment using TI-RADS and FNAC biopsy using TBSRTC and then, all patients underwent thyroidectomy operation. Specimens sent to a laboratory for histological examination. The results of TI-RADS compared with Bethesda categories, and then both results were matched with the final histology reports. Data collected and statistically analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> the overall concordance rate between US TI-RADS and TBSRTC is 67.6%. (82% in benign cases, 70.9%, in indeterminate cases, 50% in malignant cases). The overall concordance rate of results of TI-RADS versus FNAC with the final PO pathological results for predicting malignancy were (75.4%, 81.8%) with a sensitivity of (76.9 %, 81.8%) and specificity of (91.3%, 98%), positive predictive values were (PPV) (71.4%, 90%), and negative predictive values were (NPV) (76.4%, 96%), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> TI-RADS and TBSRTC classification systems could be considered as feasible and effective diagnostic modalities for predicting malignant lesions in patients had thyroid nodules. It's important for the clinicians to implement these diagnostic tests to improve their clinical performance and surgical outcomes.</p> Ashraf M Abdelkader, Ahmed Mohamed Zidan, Mohamed Tawfeek Younis, Shaimaa Kamal Dawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2110 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 15:58:12 +0000 Study of Placental Pathology in Cases of Intrauterine Fetal Deaths https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2028 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Intrauterine fetal death is agonizing, often unpredictable event. The mother, the fetus, and the placenta all are involved in the complex process of fetal death and therefore, should be addressed together. Unfortunately, the cause of death is unexplained sometimes up to two third of intrauterine deaths. For the proper determination of the cause, and further prevention, Placenta is the most accessible and readily evaluable specimen which is mirror image of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Pathology in a tertiary care hospital from June 2015 to May 2017. Material for the present study comprised of 99 placentas obtained from the cases of IUFD, delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a tertiary care hospital. These 99 placentas were received in the Department of Pathology along with clinical details for histomorphological study.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Histopathological examination of placenta revealed following findings - Perivillous fibrin 62/99 (62.62%) cases, calcification 51/99 (51.51%) cases, intervillous hemorrhage 46/99 (46.46%) cases, prominent syncytial knots 45/99 (45.45%) cases, cytotrophoblastic proliferation 41/99 (41.41%) cases, increased vascularity 31/99 (31.31%) cases, fibrinoid necrosis 19/99 (19.19%) cases, hydropic villi 09/99 (09.09%) cases and villitis in 07/99 (07.07%) cases.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The placenta can be considered as the diary of pregnancy. After fetal death, it remains viable for several days. The value of examining the placenta determining cause of death in intrauterine fetal death is evident and varies from 28-85%.The value depends largely on the quality of the placental reports.</p> Pramod Dharmraj Borade, Sujata R Kanetkar, Pradnya Pandurang Kale, Atul Bhanudas Hulwan, Dhirajkumar B Shukla, Nikita Vinod Vohra ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2028 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 16:20:10 +0000 Role of P53 Expression in Pterygium in Natives from Hilly Area https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2058 <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pterygium has been considered an ocular degenerative fibrovascular neoformation for long but abnormal p53 expression reinforces the theory that it is a proliferative condition like a tumor. The present study was aimed to describe the pattern of p53 immunoexpression in pterygium.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </strong>We included 50 excised pterygium and 10 normal conjunctival control specimens, processed for histopathology and immunostaining for p53. Cut-off value of p53 expression was taken as 5% epithelial cell positivity.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> We found higher incidence of pterygium in females and statistically significant positive p53 expression in 38 cases (76%) as compared to control group. No significant association between variations in clinical grade or histological features and abnormal p53 expression in cases and control groups was found.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> p53 overexpression in pterygium suggests that pterygium is a proliferative tissue disorder.</p> Kaushik Sanjay, Thakur Brijesh, Kishore Sanjeev, Kala Pooja ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2058 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 16:28:58 +0000 Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric and Adolescent Breast Lesions https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2095 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The spectrum of breast lesions in paediatric and adolescent age groups varies distinctly from that of adult breast lesions, in that it is rare and overwhelmingly benign. Histopathological examination being the gold standard in managing these cases, FNAC can be used for the accurate diagnosis in most cases. Aim of the study was to assess spectrum of breast lesions in paediatric and adolescent age groups on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and to correlate with histopathologic findings.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a 12 year retrospective study of cases during 2004 to 2016. 48 patients of age 19 years and below, presenting to our institute with palpable breast lumps were included. FNAC along with histopathologic examination of the excised breast lumps was performed on all the cases.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Majority were females, 46 cases (95.83%).&nbsp; Most common age group was 16 to 18 years and the most common lesion was fibroadenoma. Other lesions were benign phyllodes, tubular adenoma, hamartoma and gynaecomastia. On comparing FNAC with histopathology, concordance was seen in 45 cases (93.75%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study all the breast lesions were benign. FNAC and histopathologic examination of these lesions aids in accurate diagnosis and their management.</p> Anjali K Rao, Parinitha S Sangam, Dinesh Udipi Shastri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2095 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 16:39:09 +0000 Predictor Accuracy of Absolute Neutrophil Count in Early Onset Sepsis https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2119 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The most important causes of mortality in infants are sepsis, prematurity, low birth weight, birth trauma and neonatal asphyxia. Absolute neutrophil count is faster, easier, cheaper and simpler laboratory parameter to be used for prediction of early onset sepsis. This study is aimed to measure the influence of change in the absolute neutrophil count on babies born to mothers having risk factors for infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Design of the study was cohort prospective model. Total 123 patients were included in the study after considering appropriate inclusion criteria. The patients were divided into 3groups: ANC (Absolute neutrophil count) &lt; 1800/cmm, ANC 1800-5399/cmm and ANC &gt; 5400/cmm. Results were analysed by GraphpadInstat Demo.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>New born to mothers having risk factors for sepsis with high ANC (&gt;5400/cmm) and normal ANC (1800-5399/cmm) shows a significant difference with p=0.000 (p&lt;0.05); Odds ratio 9.35, sensitivity 82.8%, specificity 65.9%, positive predictive value79.4% and negative predictive value 70.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Incidence of early onset sepsis is 9.35 times higher in new borns born to mothers with risk factors for sepsis having higher ANC (particularly &gt;10000/cmm) than those having ANC level within normal limits.</p> Nirav S Panchal, Bipin H Chavda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2119 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 16:44:02 +0000 A A Pilot Study of Utilization of Blood Components at Tertiary Care Centre, Rajkot https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2175 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Blood is essential for life. It contains cellular component and plasma which supplies oxygen, nutrients to different parts of the body. Transfusion of blood and blood components is an integral part of health care practice. Many a times there will be injudicious use of blood and its products among patients which causes unnecessary burden to the patients as well to blood bank. Main aim of this study is to evaluate the pattern of utilization of blood component&nbsp; in tertiary care hospital at Rajkot</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>This was retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year from January 2017 to December 2017. All the data were collected from blood bank.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Result:</strong></p> <p>Total number of the blood components utilized in the year 2017 was 22290.The most utilized blood component included of Red Cell Concentrate (RCC) followed by Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) and Platelet Concentrate respectively .Cryoprecipitate was least utilized component. Thalassemia ward was majorly benefited.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>Periodic evaluation of utilization pattern, demand for different blood products also helps to maintain the blood stock.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Shruti K Katkoria, Amit H Agravat, Gauravi A Dhruva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2175 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 16:52:22 +0000 A Study of Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy in Adult Patients Presenting with Leukoerythroblastic Blood Picture https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2184 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The presence of leukoerythroblastosis serves as a valuable clue to the presence of some underlying serious disease. Various infiltrating &amp; non-infiltrating conditions present as leukoerythroblastic picture ranging from infections, sepsis, haemorrhage, haemolysis, anemias to leukemias, lymphomas &amp; metastases.</p> <p><strong>Aims and objectives: </strong>To confirm the diagnosis of various conditions presenting with leukoerythroblastosis by studying the bone marrow morphology and to study the distribution of various conditions presenting with leukoerythroblastosis in different age groups and sex.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>A total of 50 adult patients presenting with leukoerythroblastosis were studied during the period from October 2014 to August 2016. The bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were preceded by the evaluation of patient’s medical history, clinical and hematological findings with peripheral smear examination for the presence of leukoeythroblastosis. The findings were documented on a proforma.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>13 (26%) cases were in the age group of &nbsp;&nbsp;21-30 years which constituted the largest group. 26 (52%) were males and 24 (48%) were females. The spectrum of conditions presenting with leukoerythroblastosis were non–infiltrating conditions with one (2%) normal study, 8 (16%) erythroid hyperplasias, 21 (42%) megaloblastic anemias, 5 (10%) myelodysplastic syndromes and 1 (2%) hypoplastic marrow and among the infiltrating conditions were 2 (4%) acute myeloid leukemias, 6 (12%) myeloproliferative disorders, 1 (2%) metastatic deposit, 2 (4%) lymphoproliferative disorders and 3 (6%) multiple myelomas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Leukoerythroblastosis indicates the extent to which bone marrow reacts to stress and disease. It is characteristic &amp; diagnostic of a disordered marrow function. Thus, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy help in establishing an early diagnosis and better prognosis of the disease can be expected.</p> Shubha H V, Dayananda S Biligi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2184 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 17:05:10 +0000 Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry with Manual Tissue Microarray Technique: A Pilot Study on Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2216 <p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Non Hodgkin lymphomas are clonal lymphoproliferative disorders that needs to be classified immunologically by variety of immunological markers targeted against specific antigens. Tissue microarray allows for high-throughput molecular profiling of tissue specimens using immunohistochemistry resulting in reduced consumption of time and reagents as compared to conventional immunohistochemistry.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> This three-year single institutional observational study was conducted at Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu. 21 cases of histopathologically diagnosed NHL were subjected to Immunohistochemistry using manual Tissue microarray. Paraffin embedded tissue blocks of all the NHL cases formed donor blocks. Lay out for Tissue microarray was constructed followed by manual transfer of cored tissue from representative areas of donor blocks into recipient block using bone marrow needles. Immunohistochemistry was done using antibody against CD3, CD5, CD10 and CD20. Inadequate lymph node samples, poorly processed samples and extranodal NHL were excluded.</p> <p><strong>RESULT: &nbsp;</strong>Of total 21 cases subjected to immunohistochemistry using Tissue microarray technique, only 19 cases were taken for analysis due to tissue loss and histopathological misdiagnosis. Among 19 cases there were 11[57.89%] males and 8[42.11%] females with male to female ratio of 1.37:1. Mean age of study group was 54.7 years. There were 18[94.73%] cases of B-cell NHL with 1[5.27%] case of T-cell NHL. DLBCL constituted for 9[47.36%] cases. Immunohistochemistry using Tissue microarray consumed 1/6<sup>th</sup> of the reagent volume as that of conventional immunohistochemistry. &nbsp;</p> Kumudhini Priya Gunasekaran, Anbu Lenin Kulandaivel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2216 Sat, 27 Oct 2018 17:13:35 +0000 Primary Bone Lymphoma: Case Report and Review of Literature https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2092 <p class="Default">Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is a rare extranodal lymphoma accounting for less than 5% of all primary bone malignancies. Most of these lymphomas are of diffuse large cell type with age group of 20-50 years. We present a case of Primary bone lymphoma- precursor B cell lymphoblastic type in a paediatric female patient. Correct diagnosis is extremely important because PBL usually is curable in the pediatric age group with appropriate therapy.</p> Sunita Singh, Yashika Bhatia, Zile Singh, Vipul Gupta, Rajeev Sen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2092 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 17:12:49 +0000 Multiple Distant Cutaneous Metastasis: An Uncommon Presentation of a Common Malignancy https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2130 <p>Cutaneous metastasis from carcinoma breast in areas outside the chest wall is very rare. We present a case of young female with bilateral breast swellings with a clinicoradiological diagnosis of Fibroadenoma wherein FNAC proved useful in establishing the diagnosis of bilateral breast carcinoma with distant cutaneous metastasis.</p> Manjari Kishore, Prajwala Gupta, Purnima Malhotra, Lalit Aggarwal, Minakshi Bhardwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2130 Fri, 26 Oct 2018 17:19:26 +0000 Conjunctival Malignant Melanoma https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2134 <p><strong><u>ABSTRACT</u></strong></p> <p>Ocular melanomas comprise 3.7 percent of all melanomas. Amongst ocular structures, melanoma of conjunctiva is an uncommon tumor and comprise around 5 percent of the melanomas in the ocular region. Non-bulbar conjunctival malignant melanomas (CMM) are rare and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. As the presentation varies, clinical diagnosis is missed in the early stages. When CMM are amelanotic, differentiating them from other epithelial lesions on the basis of morphological features becomes even more difficult. High index of suspicion on the part of histopathologist can achieve early diagnosis of CMM on the basis of characteristic biopsy findings. Confirmed diagnosis on the basis of histopathological examination (HPE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies can lead to appropriate timely management in these cases.</p> Prajakta Ramhari Sathawane, Sandhya Vivek Poflee, Waman Krishnaji Raut ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2134 Sat, 27 Oct 2018 17:18:49 +0000 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma with Extensive Osseous Metaplasia https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2191 <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong> Calcification is frequently seen histopathological and radiological finding in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Occurrence of metaplastic bone is rare feature and majority are reported in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of papillary renal cell carcinoma with extensive osseous metaplasia.</p> Neelam Sharma, Vinita Kothari, Vimal Mehta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2191 Sat, 27 Oct 2018 17:28:05 +0000 A Rare Polypoid Lesion of The Palatine Tonsil https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2214 <p>We report an unusual benign lesion of the tonsil noticed as a mass in the oral cavity, in a 17-year-old male. Excision of the lesion showed proliferation of endothelial-lined lymph channels with luminal lymphocytes surrounded by loose fibrous tissue consistent with tonsillar lymphangiomatous polyp (LP). Though a rare lesion with only a very few reported cases, arriving at a correct diagnosis is not difficult.</p> Sunitha Ramachandra, Lakshmi Rao, Masoud Al Kindi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2214 Sat, 27 Oct 2018 17:33:13 +0000 Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Renal Pelvis https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2158 <p>Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm that is associated with infection and renal calculi. These tumors are highly aggressive and present at an advanced stage. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis in a 40-year old man, who presented with a left sided painful renal pelvic mass with a history of renal calculi 7 years ago. He was worked up with a CECT abdomen which showed a heterogeneously enhancing lesion and renal calculi in the left kidney. After radical nephrectomy, histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. SCC should be suspected in a patient with long history of renal calculus and associated mass in kidney.</p> Harsh Batra, Charanjeet Ahluwalia, Amit Yadav, Indrani Dhawan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://www.pacificejournals.com/journal/index.php/apalm/article/view/2158 Sat, 27 Oct 2018 17:37:41 +0000