Clinicohistopathological Correlation in Leprosy Lesions: Study in a Tertiary Care Institute in Chhattisgarh
AbstractBackground: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Early diagnosis is important to prevent morbidity caused by leprosy. However, accurate clinical or histopathological diagnosis is challenging especially in early skin lesions and in mid-borderline leprosy which shows overlapping features. Hence clinicohistopathological correlation is of utmost importance for accurate diagnosis. This study was conducted to evaluate the predominant subtype of leprosy in patients visiting for treatment in a tertiary care hospital, Chhattisgarh during the post-elimination phase in India. Methods: A retrospective study of 49 skin biopsies received from June 2019 to October 2020 was conducted in the Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, AIIMS Raipur. Clinically suspected cases, outside diagnosed cases, and new lesions in treated cases of leprosy were included in this study. Clinical diagnosis was correlated with histopathological examination. Results: Among 49 skin biopsies, 34 cases were diagnosed as leprosy on histopathological examination. There was no evidence of leprosy in the remaining 15 cases. The most common type was borderline tuberculoid (35.3%), followed by Erythema nodosum leprosum (20.6%). Three cases were associated with type 1 lepra reaction. Among 34 confirmed cases of leprosy, 17(50.0%) cases were positive for acid-fast bacilli by Fite Faraco stain on histological sections. Maximum cases belonged to the age group of 31-40 years and the male to female ratio was 5.8:1. Conclusion: Histopathological examination of skin lesion along with Fite Faraco stain and clinical correlation is equally efficient for categorization and adequate treatment to achieve leprosy free world.
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